Tales of the Woods and Fields (1836)

One of my fantastic readers asked me recently whether all early 19th century novels had happy endings. I answered yes, as up until this latest book I had always believed this to be the case!

The Tales of the Woods and Fields is a harrowing society novel by Anne Marsh-Caldwell. It was first published in 1836 in three volumes. Volume the first, and the first thirty six pages of volume the second contain ‘A Country Vicarage’. The remaining two volumes are taken up with the long poem ‘A Tale of an Oak Tree’ and a further novel called ‘Love and Duty’. I have decided to review only the first tale: ‘A Country Vicarage’.

The novel opens with a series of letters discussing the beautiful but young and naive Louisa Evelyn, who has received an invitation to a fashionable ball. There is concern in the vicarage about whether it would be good for Louisa to go. Charles, the son of Mr. Evelyn’s oldest friend, is secretly in love with Louisa, and worries that if she mingles with high society it might have a detrimental effect on her.

Louisa attends the dance. On her arrival at Dangerfield, she is scrutinised by the French maid who finding nothing suitable in Louisa’s trunk, dresses her in something fashionable from her mistresses wardrobe. The hostess Mrs. Carlton then presents her to the dining room and she is escorted to her place at the table. The author highlights the shallow and critical attitude of British upper class society by revealing the thoughts and conversations of the guests, including a Duke, many of the gentry, some army officers, and countless single ladies. Louisa is initially admired for her beauty, but is soon politely mocked when it gets out that she is only the parson’s daughter. Sir Harry’s recollection of her dressed in ‘a blue pinafore with torn bonnet’ is spread around the table by several Lady Marys who ‘happening to be within hearing, looked, I am sorry to say, rather ill-naturedly pleased at this description’. Louisa feels alienated during the dinner, and she is unable to add anything to the fatuous conversation. This continues the following morning at breakfast and at the races, and Mr. Evelyn’s experiment ‘seemed in a fair way of succeeding’.

At the ball, Lord William Melville solicits an introduction to Louisa and here she has her first experiences of love. Louisa spends the next few days languishing for Melville. Eventually they meet again at a play in the following chapter. There follows a brutal coach accident and Lord Melville runs to the crash to aid Louisa who is shocked and faint but not really hurt. Melville then escorts Louisa and Mrs. Carlton to her house, and Louisa who now feels decidedly worse, is carried into the dwelling by his Lordship. The author alludes to many classical literary references (especially to Greek mythology and to Shakespeare), which makes it a little difficult and a disjointed read if one needs to ‘refresh’ ones knowledge of the Classics (lovelier than Juliet… softer than Miss Haller … innocent as Perdita… more tender than Ophelia… more fatal than that of Circe, etc).

Louisa spends a vast amount of time with Lord Melville at Dangerfield, and she falls hopelessly in love with him. It is a mutual affection, but the naïve Louisa expects too much. Eventually she is summoned back to the country vicarage by Mrs. Digby, and there begins a gradual decline in her health. By degrees it is noticed by her sister and the maid, and indeed by Charles. One day he catches her crying while nursing her sister’s baby in the garden and becomes aware she is clearly in love with someone. This is later confirmed by one of his chums in a letter, as it has become widespread knowledge in society that the lucky Louisa has caught the eye of the wealthy, titled and most eligible bachelor, Lord Melville. Charles is heartbroken by the news, but is determined to throw himself into his studies and help Louisa the best he can.

Mr. Phillips (Mary’s husband) returns after a long period of absence in Ireland. He notices Louisa’s strange affliction, which is verified by Charles later in the evening. Without giving Louisa’s secret away, he explains her situation. Phillips forms a plan to send Louisa away with his wife and children for a change of scene.

One day while out walking in the copse, Louisa is surprised to see Lord Melville, and instantly hugs him. Realising her impropriety she shrieks and runs back to the house. Charles who happened to be nearby, confront Melville, and there is a haughty exchange of words. Charles convinces Melville it is imperative that he doesn’t delay formalities with Mr. Evelyn, and that he declares his intentions honestly, for her sake.

The next morning Mr. Evelyn receives a letter from Lord Melville requesting permission to present himself at the vicarage. At this point in the novel Charles takes permanent leave from the house. Louisa and Lord Melville are married in less than a month after his first appearance at the vicarage, and it appears their early married life is one of complete bliss. He rents a pretty cottage ‘of gentility’ in Wales and they spend the winter enjoying each other’s company and activities. Things take a turn when Louisa becomes pregnant and she cannot partake in all their usual entertainments. The selfish Melville sees Louisa solely as a great and beautiful prize, won to gratify his own needs.

They move to Melville’s London residence, and Louisa meets the dowager and his sisters. The author gives her readers another unflattering and detailed portrayal of upper class attitudes. Melville leaves Louisa with the women and goes to his local club. Louisa feels isolated and out of place in the house. When she goes to bed the young sisters and the dowager head off to the opera and Louisa is left feeling desolate.

The next morning Louisa is ill and fatigued, and the whole family, including the marchioness, take breakfast in Louisa’s chambers as she reclines on a couch. There is an interesting discussion. The family plainly state that it is out of the question that Louisa attends church, but they propose she will naturally be well enough for an afternoon display in the carriage around the park. ‘We will be the admiration of the whole world!’ Louisa argues that if she isn’t well enough for church, she won’t be well enough for a drive. It appears her new family are only pious when they are on display. This contrasts with Louisa’s father and Charles, who live genuine pious lifestyles back at the vicarage.

It is a long day and the family spends hours parading in their new carriage and conversing with their set. In the evening, Louisa is subjected to a long and tiresome formal meal with more aristocratic strangers. Louisa retires at a late hour, and feeling depressed she starts to worry that her life will continue like this – separated from the person her unschooled heart loves, and left to mix with the aristocratic sets which she feels alienated from. As the months go by, Louisa realises the gulph is insurmountable. Lord Melville leads his own life, and Louisa is constantly in the company of his family, who practically live with her, and she has nobody from her own/old peer group to relate to. Her poor health trapped her in Melville’s family and their set: ‘the empty fleeting bubbles of mere fashionable life’.

After the birth of her daughter, Louisa realises she cannot even control the nursery. The family hires their ‘own’ people for that role. A further unsettling realisation hits Louisa when her husband asks her what she is doing this summer! It transpires he is going to Norway for an expedition and will not be returning until the following spring around April. Louisa is told to enjoy herself as much as she can and spare no expense ‘there is the world before you’. She realises that any dreams she harboured of them being a normal couple are well and truly dashed.

Lord Melville goes to Norway and Louisa and her in-laws go to Babington Castle in the Midlands for a season. She also spends time with her sister, and they holiday on the coast. Louisa arrives in Park Lane for her husband’s expected arrival the following April – but he arrives only four months later. During the long absence Louisa’s natural vigour and health is restored. On Melville’s return there is an initial revival of their early intimacy and socialising, and Louisa naively assumes they will final become close. As can be imagined, Lord Melville soon returns to amusing and entertaining himself, while his wife is neglected. Matters finally come to a head when Louisa hears her husband is having an affair with an Italian actress ‘who has all the exciting traits she herself fails to entice in Melville’. Melville now becomes short tempered and even impatient with his wife. The family and servants follow suit and Louisa begins to feel friendless and frustrated. Melville begins to despise his own infant daughter and has no patience with Louisa and her tears.

At the start of the volume II the infant Miss Melville comes down with a fever, but she is neglected by all the servants and nurses. She calls for her mama, but the rooms are so far away she cannot be heard. When Louisa finally becomes aware her child is sick the rest of the family think it is nonsense and an excuse for Louisa not to leave Brighton and attend a party in London where the Royals will be present. Melville needs Louisa to attend with him to prove their marriage is fine. He is anxious to clear his reputation and to prove to society he is not having an affair. Of course, Melville gets his way, and the very sick child along with the family set off for London. On route, the child becomes dangerously sick, but the nurse and the selfish Lord Melville insist she is fine. Louisa reaches breaking point, and realising the seriousness of her child’s illness, she hysterically orders the carriage to stop. She defies her husband and causes such a scene, that she cannot be ignored this time. They are released at the next inn and Melville with a mock bow drives off leaving the distressed mother and daughter behind. Medical advice is immediately sought, but it is too late. The child dies and Louisa’s harrowing shrieks pierce the inn. She is desperately agitated so the innkeeper calls a visiting clergyman upstairs for assistance. Louisa recognises him as her old friend Charles, and she drops to the floor in a fainting fit.

When she is revived, Charles comforts her with reassurances of God’s eternal love and protection. They pray together and Louisa is put to bed. Charles then sends the news to Lord Melville. Of course, Melville is envious of Charles and for the first time in his life, he feels genuine remorse for his behaviour. He orders his four horses to be harnessed and to be instantly dispatched to the inn. Meanwhile, Louisa takes a turn for the worse, and Charles is again summoned upstairs by the maid. He finds Louisa in the last stages of life. Her heart ‘was hurrying with the rapidity of a mill wheel’. He kneels down beside her to hear her confession – and here she expires.

In a nutshell: a perceptive novel packed with realism and frustration. The author Anne Caldwell Marsh offers a scathing critique of the emptiness of ‘fashionable’ society and its destructive influence on human lives.

Advertisements

K: Kha, Kha, The Duck Quacketh (18th Century Phonics)

How many thousands of teachers and parents are familiar with the Miskin phonics system we use today? Most mornings I dig out my laminated set II cards and begin an English lesson with ‘OY, OY, TOY FOR A BOY’ focusing on all the OY sounding words. If you thought this was a relatively new system (like I did) then you would be mistaken.

I was browsing though an online version of the Orbis Sensualium Pictus (1705), apparently the first children’s picture book, when I found a curious phonics guide tucked in amongst the other essential early 18th century primary school skills like ‘brewing beer!’ and ‘slaughtering animals!’ The chapter begins with a solemn discussion between a teacher and his student which is delivered in both English and Latin.

14196926853_2a0619ce0d_c

As my dear readers are obviously proficient in Latin I will give their discourse in English:

Teacher: ‘come boy, learn to be wise!’ Boy: ‘what does this mean to be wise?’. Teacher: ‘to understand rightly, to do rightly, and to speak out rightly, all that are necessary’. Boy: ‘Who will teach me this?’ Teacher: ‘I, by God’s help’. Boy: ‘How?’ Teacher: ‘I will guide thee throw all. I will shew thee all. I will name thee all’. Boy: ‘See, here I am; lead me in the name of God’. Teacher: ‘Before all things, thou oughtest to learn the plain sounds, of which man’s speech confideth’:

phonics

I will definitely be trying out this 300 year old method tomorrow morning when we are doing our ‘K’ sounds: anas tetrinnit, Kha kha, the duck quaketh.

George Herbert (1593-1633)

George Herbert was rector of Bemerton between 1630-1633. He was also a poet and his colloquies and religious themes really appeal to me. His poetry reflects a balanced Anglicanism (neither Puritan nor Catholic), and for me the simplicity of diction and metaphor are an important part of what make them so interesting and effective.

ghii

When Herbert’s father died the young family moved to London, and Herbert’s mother became friend and patron to the Metaphysical poet John Donne. ‘These close links with the older poet had an influential and positive effect on Herbert’s life and work’ (Graham, 2000). But unlike Donne, ‘Herbert wrote no love poetry, having decided, when he began writing poetry at Cambridge, to devote his poetic works to God’ (Mackean, 2005).

There is a clarity and directness in Herbert’s verses. His writing is sometimes musical and often his structural forms are uncomplicated and not unlike a ‘song’.  Perhaps some poems were indeed meant for musical accompaniment. An example of this could be ‘Easter Song’. In fact, we can still find some of Herbert’s work in British hymnals today. A few famous ones being ‘King of Glory, King of Peace’ and ‘Teach me, My God and King’.

Many of his poems are also colloquies (conversations) between himself and God or with his heart, and we can see good examples in his poems ‘Good Friday’ and ‘The Pearl’. In these works the tone is ‘private, subjective and modest’. In ‘Good Friday’ we hear Herbert modestly saying ‘o my chief good’ and ‘how shall I count what thee befell?’ These colloquies allow for a powerful exchange of emotions and dilemmas between the poet and the recipient.

A prominent and important theme in Herbert’s poetry is his struggle between an ordinary life versus a surrendering to God. A good example of this can be found in his poem ‘The Collar’ a clever metaphor playing on the idea of the collar being both a restraint (Herbert being a servant of God), and an item of clerical clothing. Herbert intends a pun on the word collar with the word ‘choler’ meaning anger. The poem is a complaint being voiced by someone rebelling against the constraint he feels binds him. The poem is rich with restraining imagery ‘collars, cages, cable and ropes’, and there are rhetorical questions asked throughout giving the reader a sense of uncertainty and insecurity. Another interesting aspect of this poem is the randomness of the stanza form. This may suggest exaggeration of a conversational tone. We can almost imagine the poet really speaking in this poem. Likewise, the unusual stanza pattern may symbolise indiscipline of the rebellious spirit, or impulsiveness. Both ideas are interesting and work well with the style and theme of the poem. Also of interest is the contrast between the start of the poem, where the narrator depicts violence ‘I struck the board (altar), and cried, No more/I will abroad’ to show a spiritual crisis. This is in sharp contrast to the calm ending: ‘Me thought I heard one calling, Child! / And I replied, My Lord’, where the poet hears God’s voice and instantly knows his place and admits God’s authority.

Herbert’s poetry is full of Christian imagery and is probably semi-autobiographical. It is also clear that his sureness of tone comes from a very sound biblical knowledge. This can be seen in his poems ‘Man’ and ‘Love III’. In ‘Man’ Herbert develops a theme drawing from the book of Genesis and Psalm 8. His good understanding of theology is effectively put to use in uncomplicated and clear language. In this poem we also see an interesting conceit. Here ‘man’ is a metaphor for the world. He also possibly intended a double meaning where man is seen as the temple in which the Holy Spirit dwells. ‘Herbert often drew his inspiration from everyday domestic experiences, employing a range of simple commonplace imagery’ (Mackean, 2005). Good examples of this can be found in his poems ‘The Church-Floor’ and ‘The Window’. Herbert drew upon the structures and artefacts which surrounded him as a priest as sources for his verses. Both poems are:

Based on the church building itself: the metaphysical and allegorical interrelationship between devotion and the place which has been made for it provides the sustained images (Graham, 2000, p.56).

In ‘The Church-Floor’ the first four stanzas are only three lines each ending with ‘Patience, Humility, Confidence and Charity’ a personification of human virtues built upon aspects of the church floor. The last octave of the poem ends with ‘Blest be the Architect (referring to God), whose art/Could build so strong in a weak heart’. Although this poem is simplistic in style the comparison between the virtues and Herbert’s use of concrete imagery, is both effective and interesting. The same can be said of his poem ‘The Windows’ where Herbert this time compares preachers to church windows. Implying that through the grace of God man can become a window through which the glory of God shines as a light through a window. Again, this poem is a simple but effective comparison of church architecture and human qualities. A further interesting observation on the poetry of Herbert reveals how he often used ‘pattern poems’ as an effective tool:

George Herbert’s “Easter Wings” is written in a form of pattern poetry known as carmen figuration, otherwise known as shaped verse, in which the words and lines are arranged on the page so that they create a visual image or illustration of the poem’s subject. Herbert creates a visual image of wings, whether intended to be angels or of birds, offer a thematic view of the human state (Dykes, 2002).

Another good example of Herbert’s use of shaped verse can be found in his poem ‘The Altar’ in which the words of the poem itself form a shape of an altar. Interestingly, Herbert uses the theme of an altar in his poem as a metaphor for how one should himself as a sacrifice to the Lord.

I think it is fair to say that Herbert was a master of economy when it came to poetry. Although many of his themes are serious and weighty, Herbert approached his work with a directness and simplicity quite different to the other Metaphysical poets of his time. ‘John Donne often expressed his doubts in intellectual terms, answering them in the same way. Herbert on the other hand occasionally explored his doubts in intellectual terms, but he answered them with emotion’ (Mackean, 2005).

Through Herbert’s often ‘conversational, persuasive and proverbial’ tone, we can see a poet plagued by his own human weaknesses and doubts.  A reader would not have to be religious to relate to the common struggles Herbert experienced in his life. Indeed, whether one approaches Herbert’s work from a religious point of view or not, it would be hard to deny that his simple lyrical poems are packed intensely with emotion and often speak for themselves.

Ten Little Nigger Boys

I was reading Atlanta Black Star’s interesting, but as the title says ‘Disturbingly Racist Children’s Books’ that were around in the early 20th century. The link can be found here: 8 Disturbingly Racist Children’s Books Designed to Devalue Black People

ten-little-niggers-boys

What most shocked me was the nursery rhyme counting book called ‘Ten Little Nigger Boys’ which taught white children to count. The book ran for many editions and was still being published as late as 1956!

It was also set to music. A version can be found here on YouTube: Ten Little Nigger Boys Song

Depicted in the book are caricatures of black boys who are eliminated by a series of gruesome events, counting down from ten to the last one.

 Nursery Rhyme about Ten Little Niggers

Ten little nigger boys went out to dine;
One choked his little self, and then there were nine.

Nine little nigger boys sat up very late;
One overslept himself, and then there were eight.

Eight little nigger boys traveling in Devon;
One said he’d stay there, and then there were seven.

Seven little nigger boys chopping up sticks;
One chopped himself in half, and then there were six.

Six little nigger boys playing with a hive;
A bumble-bee stung one, and then there were five.

Five little nigger boys going in for law;
One got in chancery, and then there were four.

Four little nigger boys going out to sea;
A red herring swallowed one, and then there were three.

Three little nigger boys walking in the zoo;
A big bear hugged one, and then there were two.

Two little nigger boys sitting in the sun;
One got frizzled up, and then there was one.

One little nigger boy living all alone;
He got married, and then there were none.

Victorian Fiction Database (1837-1901)

At the Circulating Library: A Database of Victorian Fiction, 1837–1901

For those of you who like Victorian literature and bibliography, I recommend the following website: http://www.victorianresearch.org/atcl/

It’s a vast database containing details of 12729 books written by 2852 authors and it covers the entire Victorian era. You can search by author, year, title  or genre! So, if you fancy perusing the titles of the so called ‘Silver-Fork’ novels, click on NOVELS – GENRES – SILVER FORK NOVELS and you will find a whole list of them… 96 titles to be precise:

Genre: Silver-Fork Novel

Description: These novels depict life in fashionable society.

References: Alison Adburgham, Silver Fork Society: Fashionable Life and Literature from 1814 to 1840 (Constable, 1983); Sutherland

  1. Robert Plumer Ward.  Tremaine: or, The Man of Refinement.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1825.
  2. Marianne Spencer Hudson.  Almack’s: A Society Novel of the Times of George IV.  3 vol.  London: Saunders and Otley, 1826.
  3. Catherine Dorothea Burdett.  English Fashionables Abroad: A Novel.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1827.
  4. Robert Plumer Ward.  De Vere: or, The Man of Independence.  4 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1827.
  5. Edward Bulwer Lytton.  Pelham: or, The Adventures of a Gentleman.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1828.
  6. Lady Scott.  A Marriage in High Life.  2 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1828.
  7. Edward Bulwer Lytton.  Devereux: A Tale.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1829.
  8. Edward Bulwer Lytton.  The Disowned.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1829.
  9. Edward Bulwer Lytton.  Paul Clifford.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1830.
  10. Theodore Edward Hook.  Maxwell.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1830.
  11. Benjamin Disraeli.  The Young Duke: “A Moral Tale, though gay”.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1831.
  12. Catherine Gore.  Mothers and Daughters: A Tale of the Year 1830.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1831.
  13. Catherine Gore.  Pin Money.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1831.
  14. Laetitia Elizabeth Landon.  Romance and Reality.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1831.
  15. Benjamin Disraeli.  Contarini Fleming: A Psychological Auto-Biography.  4 vol.  London: John Murray, 1832.
  16. Thomas Henry Lister.  Arlington.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1832.
  17. Countess of Blessington.  The Repealers.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1833.
  18. Edward Bulwer Lytton.  Godolphin: A Novel.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1833.
  19. Benjamin Disraeli.  The Wondrous Tale of Alroy: The Rise of Iskander.  3 vol.  London: Saunders and Otley, 1833.
  20. Theodore Edward Hook.  The Parson’s Daughter.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1833.
  21. Theodore Edward Hook.  Love and Pride.  3 vol.  London: Whittaker, 1833.
  22. Catherine Gore.  The Hamiltons: or, The New Era.  3 vol.  London: Saunders and Otley, 1834.
  23. Laetitia Elizabeth Landon.  Francesca Carrara.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1834.
  24. Countess of Blessington.  The Two Friends: A Novel.  3 vol.  London: Saunders and Otley, 1835.
  25. Lady Sydney Owenson Morgan.  The Princess: or, The Beguine.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1835.
  26. Lady Dacre.  Tales of the Peerage and the Peasantry.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1835.
  27. Lady Charlotte Bury.  The Devoted.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1836.
  28. Catherine Gore.  The Diary of a Désennuyée.  2 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1836.
  29. Catherine Gore.  Mrs. Armytage: or, Female Domination.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1836.
  30. Theodore Edward Hook.  Gilbert Gurney.  3 vol.  London: Whittaker, 1836.
  31. Countess of Blessington.  The Victims of Society.  3 vol.  London: Saunders and Otley, 1837.
  32. Catherine Gore.  Memoirs of a Peeress: or, The Days of Fox.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1837.
  33. Edward Bulwer Lytton.  Ernest Maltravers.  3 vol.  London: Saunders and Otley, 1837.
  34. Lady Charlotte Bury.  The Divorced.  2 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1837.
  35. Lady Charlotte Bury.  Love.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1837.
  36. Benjamin Disraeli.  Venetia.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1837.
  37. Benjamin Disraeli.  Henrietta Temple: A Love Story.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1837.
  38. Catherine Gore.  Stokeshill Place: or, The Man of Business.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1837.
  39. Theodore Edward Hook.  Jack Brag.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1837.
  40. Laetitia Elizabeth Landon.  Ethel Churchill: or, The Two Brides.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1837.
  41. Edward Lakeby.  The Earldom Restored: An Event in High Life.  2 vol.  London: Smith, Elder, 1837.
  42. Catherine Gore.  The Woman of the World.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1838.
  43. Edward Bulwer Lytton.  Alice: or, The Mysteries. A Sequel to “Ernest Maltravers”.  3 vol.  London: Saunders and Otley, 1838.
  44. Catherine Gore.  The Heir of Selwood: or, Three Epochs of a Life.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1838.
  45. Catherine Stepney.  The Courtier’s Daughter.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1838.
  46. Countess of Blessington.  The Governess.  2 vol.  London: Longman, 1839.
  47. Catherine Gore.  The Cabinet Minister.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1839.
  48. Theodore Edward Hook.  Gurney Married: A Sequel to Gilbert Gurney.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1839.
  49. Theodore Edward Hook.  Births, Deaths, and Marriages.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1839.
  50. Robert Plumer Ward.  Pictures of the World at Home and Abroad.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1839.
  51. Rosina Bulwer Lytton.  Cheveley: or, The Man of Honour.  3 vol.  London: Edward Bull, 1839.
  52. Lady Charlotte Bury.  The History of a Flirt, Related by Herself.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1840.
  53. Catherine Gore.  Preferment: or, My Uncle the Earl.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1840.
  54. Catherine Gore.  The Dowager: or, The New School for Scandal.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1840.
  55. Catherine Gore.  Cecil: or, The Adventures of a Coxcomb.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1841.
  56. Catherine Gore.  Greville: or, A Season in Paris.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1841.
  57. Lady Charlotte Bury.  Family Records: or, The Two Sisters.  3 vol.  London: Saunders and Otley, 1841.
  58. Catherine Gore.  Cecil, a Peer: A Sequel to Cecil; or, The Adventures of a Coxcomb.  3 vol.  London: T. and W. Boone, 1841.
  59. Robert Plumer Ward.  De Clifford: or, The Constant Man.  4 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1841.
  60. Lady Charlotte Bury.  The Manoeuvring Mother.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1842.
  61. Countess of Blessington.  The Lottery of Life.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1842.
  62. Theodore Edward Hook.  Fathers and Sons.  3 vol.  London: C. H. Clarke, 1842.
  63. Theodore Edward Hook.  Peregrine Bunce: or, Settled at Last.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1842.
  64. Laetitia Elizabeth Landon.  Lady Anne Granard: or, Keeping Up Appearances.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1842.
  65. Catherine Gore.  The Ambassador’s Wife.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1842.
  66. Catherine Gore.  The Banker’s Wife: or, Court and City.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1843.
  67. Frances Milton Trollope.  Hargrave: or, The Adventures of a Man of Fashion.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1843.
  68. Lady Charlotte Bury.  The Wilfulness of Woman.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1844.
  69. Catherine Gore.  The Popular Member, The Wheel of Fortune, etc.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1844.
  70. Countess of Blessington.  Strathern: or, Life at Home and Abroad. A Story of the Present Day.  4 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1845.
  71. Catherine Gore.  Self: A Novel.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1845.
  72. Catherine Gore.  Peers and Parvenus.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1846.
  73. Catherine Gore.  The Débutante: or, The London Season.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1846.
  74. Catherine Gore.  The Débutante: or, The London Season.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1846.
  75. Barbara Hemphill.  Lionel Deerhurst: or, Fashionable Life Under the Regency.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1846.
  76. Catherine Gore.  Castles in the Air.  3 vol.  London: Bentley, 1847.
  77. Catherine Charlotte Maberly.  Fashion and its Votaries.  3 vol.  London: Saunders and Otley, 1848.
  78. Catherine Gore.  The Diamond, and the Pearl.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1849.
  79. BTAO Sin and Sorrow.  Sin and Sorrow: A Story of a Man of Fashion.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1850.
  80. Anna Atkins.  The Perils of Fashion: A Novel.  3 vol.  London: Henry Colburn, 1852.
  81. Catherine Gore.  The Dean’s Daughter: or, The Days We Live In.  3 vol.  London: Hurst and Blackett, 1853.
  82. Anna Atkins.  The Colonel: A Novel of Fashionable Life.  3 vol.  London: Hurst and Blackett, 1853.
  83. Catherine Gore.  Progress and Prejudice.  3 vol.  London: Hurst and Blackett, 1854.
  84. Catherine Gore.  Mammon: or, The Hardships of an Heiress.  3 vol.  London: Hurst and Blackett, 1855.
  85. Mrs. Martin Lucas.  The Quicksands of Fashion.  3 vol.  London: T. C. Newby, 1855.
  86. Lady Charlotte Bury.  The Lady of Fashion.  3 vol.  London: Hurst and Blackett, 1856.
  87. Lady Chatterton.  Compensation: A Story of Real Life Thirty Years Ago.  2 vol.  London: John W. Parker, 1856.
  88. Frances Milton Trollope.  Fashionable Life: or, Paris and London.  3 vol.  London: Hurst and Blackett, 1856.
  89. Henry Noel Humphreys.  Diamonds and Dust: Being Grains from the Sands of Society.  3 vol.  London: T. C. Newby, 1856.
  90. Emily Owen.  Raised to the Peerage: A Novel.  3 vol.  London: Hurst and Blackett, 1859.
  91. Blue Tunic.  From the Peasantry to the Peerage: A Novel.  3 vol.  London: T. C. Newby, 1860.
  92. George Augustus Sala.  The Baddington Peerage: Who Won, and Who Wore It. A Story of the Best and Worst of Society.  3 vol.  London: Skeet, 1860.
  93. Catherine Maria Grey.  Passages in the Life of a Fast Young Lady.  3 vol.  London: Hurst and Blackett, 1862.
  94. Catherine Maria Grey.  Good Society: or, Contrasts of Character.  3 vol.  London: Hurst and Blackett, 1863.
  95. Anna Atkins.  A Page from the Peerage.  2 vol.  London: Longman, 1863.
  96. Joseph Verey.  Martyrs to Fashion: A Novel.  3 vol.  London: Tinsley Brothers, 1868.